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Category: Nutrition
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The placenta has been described as a pancake-shaped organ that attaches to the inside of the uterus and is connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord.

Structure of placenta

 Placenta

Importance of placenta

Functions of placenta
• Exchange material between mother and fetus after 12 weeks of pregnancy.
• Endocrine [oestrogen, progesteron, human placental lactogen, chorionic
gonadotrophins]
• Attachment of the fetus to mother
• Acting as a barrier for certain materials
• Prevention from coagulation of blood due to Rh factor and different blood groups, and relatively high blood pressure of maternal circulation.
• Fetal membranes
The outer cells of the blastocyst (trphoblastic villi) project into the surrounding tissue of the endometrium. Nutrients are absorbed across these villi. The cells of the inner cell mass divide. The embryo grows continuously and outer cells and tissues give rise to the amnion and yolk sac. Amnion surrounds the fluid filled cavity(amniotic cavity) in which the embryo is suspended and cushioned against mechanical damage. Yolk sac has no obvious function and later becomes buried in placenta.
The fourth embryonic membrane i.e. the allantois develops from the hind gut and grows in close contact with the chorion and participates in the formation of placenta.

human placenta
• Umbilical cord
Connecting cord from the placenta to the fetus.

 

 

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