•  There are two types of reproduction
  1. Asexual
  2. Sexual


Asexual reproduction

Genetically identical cells/ offspring are produced from a single parent cell through mitosis. Occurs in unspecialized organisms

  • Fission

Single organism divides mitotically to produce genetically identical organisms.

1. Binary fission
2. Multiple fission

  • Binary fission

binary fission

Reproduction of unicellular organisms by mitosis into two equal daughter cells.

  • Eg. Parameciumparamecium
  • Amoebaamoeba
  • Bacteria bacteria


  • Multiple fission

multiple fission

Production of many identical daughter cells by dividing one mother cell, which undergo mitosis.

  • Eg. Plasmodiumplasmodium
  • Budding


New individual is produced as an outgrowth of a cell or parent’s body and become separated from the rest.

  • Eg. Cnidarians [if remains attached to the parent’s body forms colonies]cnidaria
  • yeastyeast



  • Fragmentation

Breaking of an organism into several parts, each of which grows to form a new organism.

  • Eg. Planariaplanaria
  • Ribbon wormribbon worm
  • SpirogyraSpirogyra


  • Formation of asexual spores/ structures

Formation of uninucleated or multinucleated structures which form fungal hyphae, filamentous bacteria or adults of some other organisms.

  • E.g; Conidiospores Gemma in Marchantiaconodiospores


Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual reproduction

  • Advantages

1. Only one parent is required.
2. Genetically identical offspring are produced.
3. Rapid multiplication in number

  • Disadvantages

1. Many will fail to germinate, without suitable place for germination. (spores)

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